Surrogacy is a reproductive alternative that a couple can resort to when the "classic" methods of assisted reproduction (artificial insemination, IVF, ICSI...) do not allow them to solve their fertility problems.
This reproductive technique, quite complicated ethically, is not allowed in all places that apply assisted reproduction. For this reason, many patients are forced to travel abroad in search of the option which allows them to become parents.
Moreover, among the countries that are in favour of applying surrogacy, each one of them has specific conditions and peculiarities in its legislation.
Currently, the United States, Canada and some European countries (Russia, Greece) are the most common surrogacy destinations. This article details the most important aspects of each of them.
Below you have an index with the 7 points we are going to deal with in this article.
Things to keep in mind
In many european countries as in Spain, surrogacy is not legal, so a person or couple who needs this method to have a child must choose the country to carry out the entire process. In addition, prospective parents have to make the best decision that suits their own conditions and needs.
The aspects to take into account when choosing the surrogacy destination are the following:
- Family types.
- If egg and embryo donation is needed.
- Price of reproductive treatment.
- Choice and relationship with the surrogate mother.
- Type of surrogacy.
- Acknowledgement of paternity.
- Availability to travel.
Intended parents should assess and analyze each of these factors when determining the country where the surrogacy process will take place. In addition, legal certainty and guarantees of compliance with the rights of all parties involved should be the basis for selecting the surrogacy destination.
Surrogacy in the United States
The greatest experience in the surrogacy process is in the United States, although the cost is also higher than in other countries.
Unlike other destinations, the United States does not have a universal surrogacy law that can be applied to the entire country. Each state in the country has its own regulations in this regard.
The most common states that both nationals and foreigners go to for surrogacy treatment are: California, Illinois, Maryland, Utah and Texas.
Despite the fact that each destination has its own legal peculiarities, in general the United States accepts the application of surrogacy for:
- Any family type.
- Any nationality (national or foreign).
- With sperm and/or egg donation or using gametes from the future parents.
- Commercially or altruistically.
- No need to prove the inability to gestate of the prospective parents of intention.
Another common requirement in the United States is that the selection of the surrogate is double, that is, both surrogate and future parents must choose each other and approve the agreement between them.
If you want more details about each of the states in the United States, you can read this article: Surrogacy in the United States.
Having a child in Canada
Canada is another possible destination for a surrogacy child. There, the law approves surrogacy throughout the territory.
In the case of the province of Quebec, surrogacy is not strictly forbidden, but the contract governing it is considered null and void and cannot be enforced in court.
One of the conditions for applying this reproductive method to both Canadian and foreign patients is that it be an altruistic process. This means that the surrogate cannot receive financial compensation for her work in the process, beyond reimbursement by the expectant parents of the costs of the pregnancy.
Like the United States, Canada accepts single men and women, gay couples and heterosexual couples.
In the following link you can find more information about the particularities of surrogacy in Canada.
Surrogacy in Europe
Despite the fact that many European countries apply assisted reproduction, surrogacy is not as widely permitted.
Ukraine, Russia and Greece are the destinations where patients who need surrogacy in order to achieve parenthood usually go. The following is a summary of the general conditions for each of them.
Russia is a country that allows surrogacy for single women and heterosexual couples, although it is necessary that the future mother justifies her medical incapacity to gestate and for which she needs the surrogacy. Furthermore, in Russia it is allowed to combine this method with the donation of one of the two gametes.
It should be noted that single mothers will need their own eggs and it will not be possible to use donor eggs. Therefore, the future intended mother will have to provide her own genetic endowment.
Also, the cost of surrogacy in Russia is between €50,000 and €80,000.
For more information about this destination, we recommend you visit the following article: Surrogacy in Russia: Legislation, Cost and Filiation.
Surrogacy in Greece is regulated by two laws: Law 3089/2002 and Law 3305/2005. These laws state that only single women and married and unmarried heterosexual couples are eligible for surrogacy in this country. In addition, the mother-to-be must present a medical certificate proving her inability to carry the pregnancy to term and at least one parent must provide the genetic load of the future embryo.
The approximate cost of this process in Greece is about €70,000-80,000 and it must be taken into account that unforeseen events may occur.
If you want to learn more about surrogacy in Greece, we invite you to visit the following article: Surrogacy in Greece: legislation, registration of the baby and costs.
Surrogacy in Ukraine is allowed for heterosexual couples and single women. The intended mother must prove that she cannot gestate her child and furthermore, egg and/or sperm donation is allowed.
The price of surrogacy in the Ukraine is cheaper than in Russia and is between €26,000 and 60,000. For this reason, Ukraine is one of the top surrogacy countries.
If you want more details about this destination, you can read here: How does surrogacy work in Ukraine - Requirements and costs.
If you need a gestational surrogate to start a family, we recommend that you use this tool. In three simple steps, you will receive a report with useful tips to choose the best destination and agency for you. Moreover, our team will evaluate your particular case to provide you with information about the most suitable companies and clinics for you, out of those that have passed our strict selection process.
FAQs from users
Suggested for you
If you want to know all the people involved in a surrogacy process, don't forget to read the following article: Professionals in surrogacy: agencies, clinics and lawyers.
Our editors have made great efforts to create this content for you. By sharing this post, you are helping us to keep ourselves motivated to work even harder.