The first in vitro fertilization (IVF) birth was in 1978 and since then the success of this technique has increased thanks to numerous technological advances and the application of new methods.
The different sections of this article have been assembled into the following table of contents.
Probability of success
In order to determine the success rates of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, different aspects must be taken into account:
- Age of the woman
- If IVF is performed with own or donor eggs
- If the transfer is fresh or with frozen embryos
- Whether or not a PGD has been carried out
- In vitro fertilization technique used (IVF or ICSI)
- Fertility Clinic
In addition, when observing or studying different success rates it is important to take into account what the success rate is being defined on. Thus, we can speak of the percentage of gestation per cycle initiated, per puncture or per transfer; or percentage of the percentage of birth also per cycle initiated, per puncture or per transfer performed.
Taking into account the different variations of each infertility situation depending on the characteristics of each treatment, the cause of infertility and other aspects to be taken into account, the rates are not exact but approximate data.
Importance of the woman’s age
As a woman’s age progresses, her quality and quantity of eggs decreases and thus the success rate of in vitro fertilization is reduced.
- Women under 35: the rate of gestation by transfer is about 43 per cent and the rate of delivery by transfer is about 21 per cent.
- Women aged 35-39 years: have a probability of becoming pregnant of about 37% and a birth rate of about 16%.
- Women 40 years of age or older: the probability of pregnancy reaching term decreases to about 7% by transfer. The rate of gestation by transfer is around 24%
As we can see, success rates drop dramatically as women age, mainly due to loss of oocyte quality. This is why egg donation is so important for these women, as it can be the solution to their infertility problem.
In brief, we could say that the percentage of birth with own eggs varies from 20 to 7% depending on age. Therefore, women over the age of 35 are advised to consider egg donation as an option.
Gestation rates vary from about 38% when using own eggs to 54% when the eggs are donor eggs, and the rate of pregnancy at term (delivery rate) goes from 22% (own eggs) to 32% when resorting to egg donation.
When egg donation and surrogacy are used, success rates can be as high as 70%. However, in most destinations, surrogacy is only available if the intended mother has a justifiable medical reason.
IVF or ICSI
Many people prefer to perform ICSI rather than conventional in vitro fertilization because they believe that, by inserting semen directly into the egg, the likelihood of pregnancy increases.
However, the rates of pregnancy and delivery by transfer performed using IVF are 39.5% and 22.9% respectively and if we apply the ICSI are around 38% and 22%.
As we can see, the variations are not drastic, but there is a general increase when IVF is applied. However, the application of one or the other technique will depend on the cause of infertility, especially the male factor, as there are pathologies such as obstructive azoospermia or severe asthenozoospermia that necessarily require the application of ICSI.
ICSI is also necessary when preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment is performed. ICSI is also needed when preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment is performed. The birth rate per transfer in a PGD cycle is close to 32.6%.
Embryos vitrification or freezing can also vary success rates. Thus, the rate of birth by transfer of cryopreserved embryos from own oocytes is close to 18% and if they come from donor eggs is 22.5%. These fresh rates are 22% and 32% respectively, so these indicate that the cryopreservation of embryos slightly decreases success rates.
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