A negative pregnancy test after several embryo transfers and different in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles can cause great frustration in couples or women who have been trying to become pregnant for some time.
When the assisted reproduction treatments do not give the expected result after several failed attempts, the reproductive options are finished and the moment of having a child is more and more delayed.
This situation is often the reason that leads these patients to consider surrogacy as the last option to become parents.
The different sections of this article have been assembled into the following table of contents.
Infertility and assisted reproduction
When a couple is planning to have children, they first try to have children naturally, and if they do not succeed after a year of unprotected habitual sexual intercourse, it is recommended that they go to a fertility clinic.
There are different fertility treatments indicated to each patient depending on the cause that prevents having children:
- Artificial Insemination
- IVF or ICSI
In addition to these basic techniques, there are other complementary techniques to improve the success rate and achieve the desired pregnancy. Egg donation, semen donation or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) are some of these techniques.
If even with all this and after several attempts, the pregnancy does not occur, surrogacy may be the definitive solution that allows future parents to achieve their desire to have a child.
Causes of IVF failure
Sometimes it is not possible to know exactly why a woman cannot carry a pregnancy to term after several fertility treatments. The accumulation of failures, especially in the case of IVF, wears patients down physically and emotionally.
The number of attempts that should be made for each treatment is not fixed, as it will depend on the personal, medical and economic situation of each woman or couple.
Repeated failure after several IVF cycles is one of the reasons a couple considers surrogacy.
The main causes of IVF treatment failure are fertilization failure and implantation failure.
It is also possible for a woman to become pregnant after IVF, but this may result in a miscarriage. If this occurs frequently, the woman is considered to have repeated miscarriages.
Each of these impediments to success with IVF is explained below:
When the union of a woman's egg with a man's sperm does not result in a viable embryo, fertilization failure is said to have occurred.
Usually, after obtaining an adequate number of eggs in the follicular puncture of an IVF, a total fertilization failure does not occur. In other words, there is almost always going to be some embryo that can be transferred. However, it may happen that there is no embryo after fertilization, forcing the IVF cycle to be cancelled.
The causes that do not allow the fertilization of the embryo are the morphological and/or genetic alterations of the gametes: eggs and spermatozoa. Therefore, the first approach to this situation is to resort to IVF with egg donation or sperm donation as the case may be.
If there is no other cause of infertility in the woman that prevents pregnancy, the success rate of the treatments increases considerably with the donor gametes.
The case of embryo implantation failure is more common than that of fertilization. It takes place when, after the right development of the embryos and their transfer to the uterus, it fails to implant and results in a negative pregnancy test.
In this case, fertilization has taken place, but endometrial receptivity or communication between the embryo and endometrium fails.
The causes of implant failure can be genetic alterations of the embryo as in the previous case, although uterine malformations or endometrial alterations also have a great influence.
The presence of myomas, polyps, infections, endometriosis, congenital anomalies, etc. are some examples of uterine problems. You can continue reading here for more information about this: Uterine Anomalies.
On the other hand, some thrombophilic and immune system diseases in the mother may also prevent implantation.
Finally, there are couples who do get pregnant, either through IVF or even naturally. However, a miscarriage occurs after a time that can be days, weeks, or months.
When pregnancy loss is repeated more than 2 or 3 times, recurrent miscarriage is diagnosed in the woman.
This is something truly hopeless and hard for future parents, because after the joy of the positive beta-hCG test confirming pregnancy, comes the sadness and desolation of abortion. Although in the majority of cases it is not possible to clarify the real cause why the pregnancy ends in a miscarriage, it is generally associated with:
- Genetic factors in the sperm, egg, and/or embryo
- Immune alterations
- Coagulation problems
- Uterine alterations
- Endocrines alterations
You can read more about recurrent miscarriage and the causes that can cause it by clicking on the following link: What is recurrent miscarriage?
The surrogacy technique consists of transferring the embryos of the intending parents, who cannot carry a pregnancy for various reasons, to the uterus of a healthy woman to carry the pregnancy to term.
The surrogate does not have any genetic link with the embryo that will develop in her uterus and, after birth, will give the baby to the parents of intention that will carry out the appropriate filiation process according to the country.
Surrogacy is not a legal practice in every states or countries. It is legal in UK and some states of the Unites States and some countries in Europe as Greece or Ukraine.
Surrogacy is the most challenging of all fertility treatments. For this reason, it's crucial that you rely on well-versed professionals. If you are looking for trustworthy agencies, this tool will show you destination countries where your family type is permitted, and provide you with a detailed cost estimate. Moreover, our specialists will evaluate your case in particular in order to recommend you those clinics that best fit your needs, and meet our rigorous selection criteria. We have 10 years' experience behind us.
FAQs from users
How many IVF attempts would it take to get pregnant?
It is difficult to predict the exact number of IVF attempts that a couple should make before considering surrogacy, as it depends very much on the characteristics of each patient.
Some studies state that a woman should have become pregnant before reaching the third or fourth cycle of IVF. This will vary depending on the number of eggs obtained in each ovarian stimulation. However, it is considered that after 4 failed IVF cycles, the likelihood of success in a subsequent IVF will no longer increase.
Can I carry out a surrogacy process with my own eggs?
Yes, as long as there is a good ovarian reserve and the oocyte quality allows to obtain embryos with the capacity to implant in the uterus of the surrogate. If this is not the case, it will be necessary to resort to the eggs of a donor. In no case is it recommended to use the oocytes of the surrogate.
Suggested for you
In order to know more about the countries where is it possible to get through a surrogacy process, we recommend you to read the following post: International Surrogacy – Laws & Options for Surrogacy Abroad.
If you want to know the approximate number of attempts to achieve success with a fertility treatment, you can continue reading here: Number of Attempts in Assisted Reproduction.
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