By contrast with lesbian couples, two men cannot be fathers by traditional assisted reproduction techniques. In order for a gay couple to achieve paternity, they have two options: surrogacy or adoption.
Since adoption involves several years of waiting and complicated paperwork, most male homosexual couples and single men, who cannot be fathers in any other way, resort to surrogacy.
The different sections of this article have been assembled into the following table of contents.
Forming a homoparental family
Female homosexual couples may have biological children through assisted reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization. In case they do not achieve pregnancy by these techniques, have a uterine problem or a serious health problem that makes the pregnancy pose a risk can have biological children by surrogacy.
However, for two men to form a family in which they share their genes with their children, they have no choice but to turn to a surrogate to have them through surrogacy.
Aunque habitualmente esta práctica se conoce como vientre de alquiler o maternidad subrogada, el término más correcto para referirse a ello es gestación subrogada o gestación por sustitución.
Society is more and more aware that there are different types of families, and all models are equally valid. Now, thanks to assisted reproduction a man can be a father, without the need to have a female partner. The process would consist of the following steps:
- Choosing a woman who carries the pregnancy, called a surrogate
- Choosing a woman who provides eggs, called a donor
- Delivering a semen sample to the fertility clinic
- In vitro fertilization with a donor's eggs and the couple's sperm
- Transfer of the embryos to the surrogate
- Development of pregnancy and childbirth
In order to carry out a surrogacy process it is very important to choose a country in which not only is this practice legal but also homosexual couples are allowed access.
Biological children of gay couples
If it is important for future parents to have a biological relation with their child, there are several options for deciding who will provide the sperm and therefore their genetic material.
On the one hand, they can choose that only one of the two contribute the semen, whether it is the one with the highest semen quality or the one chosen by mutual agreement. He will be the child's biological father.
In case of the intentional parents wish to transfer more than one embryo to the surrogate, she must agree. The main reason is the high possibility of multiple pregnancy, which can lead to greater complications during pregnancy.
On the other hand, both can provide the semen sample so that fertilization is done with the semen of both but only one is the father. In this case half of the eggs would be fertilized with the sperm of one and the other half with the other. However, one or two embryos would be transferred to the uterus, the best quality embryos, regardless of who the biological father is. That way, neither of us would know who the child's father is.
In case they both want to have a biological child of their own there is the option of having a child each one. For this, it is necessary for the pregnant woman to consent to the transfer of two embryos which, as we have already said, represent a high probability of multiple pregnancy.
It is important that future parents take into account that by transferring two embryos the surrogate will not always become pregnant with two babies. It is possible that only one embryo is implanted, so that the pregnancy would be unique, as well as not implant any and a new transfer has to be made.
It would also be possible, although much less frequently, for one of the embryos to split in two to give rise to identical twins, so a triple pregnancy could occur.
To achieve pregnancy, in this case, as in the previous one, half of the donor's eggs would be fertilized with the semen of one and the other half with those of the other. Thus, if they are of good quality, two embryos could be transferred, one from each father.
The important thing is that both members of the couple agree and decide which option is best suited to their needs and with which they feel most comfortable.
Countries where gay surrogacy is allowed
Surrogacy is not carried out in a lot of countries, since the legislation does not protect future parents by considering a surrogacy contract to be null and void. In the majority of European countries, the woman who gives birth is considered the mother of the baby.
India, Thailand, Mexico, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia or Greece are not options for gay couples. In Mexico, India and Thailand, they have tightened their legislation and it is no longer allowed for foreigners.
In Greece, Georgia, Russia and Ukraine, the law prohibits homosexual couples from having access to this reproductive method. In the United States there are states where surrogacy is allowed and it is specifically contemplated that homosexuals or single men can form their families. This is the case in states such as California, Florida or Utah. The same goes for Canada, so it's another reproductive destination for homosexual couples.
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Parentage for children born thanks to surrogacy
In both the United States and Canada, when a surrogacy process is carried out, the intended parents obtain the child's parentage through a judicial sentence. This judgment will be obtained by trial and may be given both before and after childbirth, depending on the state in which the surrogacy process is made.
With this pre or after-birth order, the parents can go to their embassy in order to travel home with their child.
Consult this article to learn more about the different laws about surrogacy: Surrogacy Laws by Country – Where Is It Legal?
FAQs from users
Can two gay males have fraternal twins, each one from a different intended father, in a single pregnancy?
Of course! Although we can’t guarantee the delivery of fraternal twins, there are definitely things we can do to help you achieve this goal! Our clinic offers the opportunity to fertilize half the number of eggs with one intended father’s sperm while fertilizing the other half of eggs with the other intended father’s sperm. Should viable embryos be created from each intended father’s sperm, then it would be possible to transfer said two embryos to a surrogate. However, transferring multiple embryos is a question for which the Doctor, GC, and IPs all need to be on the same page.
Can two men have a biological child of both in a single pregnancy?
Currently, only one spermatozoon produced by the same man can fertilize an ovum.
Do gay couples need to be married to go through surrogacy?
In the case of a gay couple or a single man, the only two legal countries are the United States and Canada. Since the U.S. has a federal structure and Canada has its regulation by provinces, we will have to review state by state or province by province what the requirements are and if they fit our specific case.
In Canada, any state will accept a couple of men as fathers of the baby regardless of whether they are married except Quebec where surrocay is prohibited. In the U.S., only a few states such as California or Nevada will accept this situation; and in other states, such as Texas or Utah, the couple must be united in marriage to be accepted as the baby's parents.
In which countries can gays go to for surrogacy?
The USA is undoubtedly the safest destination for gay male couples who resort to surrogacy to create their family, as well as having prestigious clinics and the most advanced technologies, the legal guarantees are absolute and from the first moment both intended parents appear on the birth certificate of the baby.
Is it hard to find a surrogate for a gay couple? Where can they find her?
In order to carry out a surrogacy process it is necessary to look for a surrogate. Surrogacy agencies are responsible for finding a suitable woman who meets the requirements and passes medical and psychological tests. They have a database of surrogates so that parents can choose different candidates and an interview can be arranged.
The sexual condition of the couple and the family model does not have to make it difficult to find a surrogate. Even so, it is important to keep in mind that the choice must be mutual between the surrogate and the intended parents. This supposes that the woman who offers herself as a surrogate can accept or reject the couple.
Can a gay couple go through surrogacy in Ukraine?
No, Ukrainian legislation is very clear on this point: only married heterosexual couples are allowed access to surrogacy.
You can check here the conditions for surrogacy in this country:How Does Surrogacy Work in Ukraine? – Cost & Legal Aspects.
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FAQs from users: 'Can two gay males have fraternal twins, each one from a different intended father, in a single pregnancy?', 'Can two men have a biological child of both in a single pregnancy?', 'Do gay couples need to be married to go through surrogacy?', 'In which countries can gays go to for surrogacy?', 'Is it hard to find a surrogate for a gay couple? Where can they find her?' and 'Can a gay couple go through surrogacy in Ukraine?'.